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June, 2012
Visual Abstracts:  Institute of Mathematical Geography
Sandra L. Arlinghaus


Word clouds are images that portray word frequency in a document according to the size of the word in the cloud.  The words may be arranged in patterns designed to pique interest.  They are a sort of abstract, or visual, abstract of a book or article.  Word clouds are abstract art representing document content.  At a glance, the reader can see what are the important concepts simply by word size in the image.  They unify conventional journal "abstracts," "key words," and "word frequency counts."

This new form of abstract is used to create abstracts for the holdings of the Institute of Mathematical Geography from its beginning in 1985 to date.  Not all documents can be captured equallly in this manner.  Scanned images and other images are excluded.  Some files produce denser clouds than do others; as in the real world, there are different kinds of clouds!  Formats that are easiest to work with are word-based formats:  .html, .pdf, .doc, .dox, and .TeX.  PowerPoint displays can be opened in PowerPoint and saved as Rich Text Format and then worked with to form a cloud but these clouds are typically quite sparse in content in relation to the original file.  Google Earth files, saved in .kml format, can be opened in WordPad or some such and then converted to cloud form.  However, many of the most common words will be computer code words; the same situation holds for TeX files.  If these files of code are too large, then a truncated version of them, hopefully representative of broad content, was used.  A partial idea of the content seem to come through.   Animations,  applets, movies, and music are other examples of formats that cannot, or cannot readily, be captured in word cloud format.  Perhaps that is not particularly a limitation; they have great visual interest already.  In the catalogue below, the original file format is noted if it is not .html.  That way, the reader will have an idea of the limitations associated with the word pattern in the resulting cloud.

Catalogue of IMaGe Word Clouds

The software used to create the clouds is available online:  In using this package to create word clouds, a maximum word count of 150 was selected and random design and color patterns were chosen, largely as a time-saving device.  Common words were omitted ("the", "and", etc.).  So too were figure captions, section headers (when extensive), article titles, and references and other word elements that give, in themselves, a summary of meaning.  The words "Figure" and "Figures" will no doubt appear prominently in most clouds as in-text references to images (Figure 1, for example) were not deleted.  The rest of the words in the cloud will carry most of the meaning, although of course when "Figure" or "Figures" are prominent in the cloud they suggest that the article has many images in support of the words.  To integrate word clouds within a given year, alll backgrounds from a single year are the same color; for example, all word clouds from 2010 have a white background.  Clouds from 1990 to 1996 represent a full journal; after 1996, clouds represent a single article.

The material below presents a fairly complete catalogue of word clouds for Solstice.  Look for word clouds to continue to be integrated throughout the entire IMaGe site!

Solstice:  An Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics
Volume XXII, Number 1. Volume XXII, Number 2.

Institute of Mathematical Geography
Quick Response Code (QR Code) Archive
Sandra L. Arlinghaus

Contemporary Views Along the First Transcontinental Railroad (Available as .pptx)
Richard Koenig

3D and 2D Mapping  (available only as a .pptx file)
Matthew Naud, Environmental Coordinator City of Ann Arbor, with Systems Planning Staff

The Perimeter Project, Part 6.
Connections:  Scholarly Multi-tasking in a Mobile Virtual World, Part 3.  (Available as .pptx)
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus
Ann Arbor, Downtown Historical Marker Survey (available only as a .kmz file)
Sandra L. Arlinghaus

The Perimeter Project, Part 5.
Connections:  Scholarly Multi-tasking in a Mobile Virtual World, Part 2 (available only as .pptx file)
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus

Pall-Gelman Plume, A Contemporary Google Earth View (available only as a .kmz file)
Roger Rayle


Volume XXI, Number 1 Volume XXI, Number 2.
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Joseph J. Kerski

Patterns, Maps, and Fractals:  The Case of United Kingdom Historical Data Sets
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Michael Batty
The Perimeter Project, Part 3.
Fragile Lands Protection Using Cemetery Zoning (available as .pptx)
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus
Mapping It Out! A Contemporary View of Burgess's Concentric Ring Model of Urban Growth
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Daniel A. Griffith
Zipf's Hyperboloid--Revisited:  Compression and Navigation--Canonical Form
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, with input from an earlier article as part of an ongoing collaboration with Michael Batty.
The Quest to Save Honey:  Tracking Bee Pests Using Mobile Technology
Diana Sammataro and Sandra L. Arlinghaus
Google Earth:  A Platform for Open Data
Roger Rayle

The Perimeter Project, Part 4.
Connections:  Scholarly Multi-tasking in a Mobile Virtual World (available in .pptx)
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus


Volume XX, Number 1 Volume XX, Number 2
The Perimeter Project:  Fragile Lands Protection Using Cemetery Zoning
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus

The Perimeter Project, Part 2.
Fragile Lands Protection Using Cemetery Zoning
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus
Bee Ranges and Almond Orchard Locations:  Contemporary Visualization
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Diana Sammataro

Southeast Asia:  Historical Place Names Visualized in Google Earth
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus and Robert F. Austin
Revised eBook Supplement, A Historical Gazetteer of Southeast Asia, 1986.
Robert F. Austin

Air Pollution Changes in the Detroit Metro Area from 1988-2004
Kerry Ard

IMaGe Monograph #1:
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and John D. Nystuen, 1986.  
Mathematical Geography and Global Art: 
the Mathematics of David Barr's `Four Corners Project'.

Link to original   Link to supplementary material  Word cloud of supplementary material.
Emergency Phones:  A Google Earth Approach
Sandra L. Arlinghaus

IMaGe Monograph #2:  
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, 1986.
Down the Mail Tubes: the Pressured Postal Era, 1853-1984.
Link to original   Link to supplementary material   Word cloud of supplementary material.
3D Annotated Archive
Sandra L. Arlinghaus


Volume XIX, Number 1 Volume XIX, Number 2
Google Earth Applications in a Community Information System:  Scio Residents for Safe Water
Roger Rayle
Electronic Journals:  Then and Now...A Fifteen Year Retrospective
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus and Richard H. Zander
Huron River Tour, Ann Arbor
Matthew Naud
Charting the Past:  Population-Environment Dynamics
Sandra Arlinghaus and Michael Batty
Detroit North American Bridge Championship:  the Google Earth Display
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus
Project Archimedes:  Google Earth Experiments in Innovative Scientific Communications
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Unit 174.  American Contract Bridge League Bridge Clubs:  Greater Houston
Bert Onstott

Another Tale of Two Cities:  Neighborhood Watch from Ann Arbor to Baghdad
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Real-time Animation Scripts for Google Earth
Lars Schumann

Mouth Geography...Or, Sleep Apnea and Linguistics?
William E. Arlinghaus

Deep Blue:  IMaGe Author Applets
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Spatial Analysis through the Looking Glass
Peter Martin

Geometry/Geography--Visual Unity
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus


The Animated Pascal
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Desargues's Two-Triangle Theorem
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Looking at Some Data from Isard
Waldo Tobler

Introduction to the Special Issue on Internet Geometry and Geography
Sandra Arlinghaus

Maps and Decisions
Part II--Ambiguity
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William C. Arlinghaus

Visualizing Rank and Size of Cities and Towns
Part I:  England, Scotland, and Wales, 1901-2001
Sandra Arlinghaus and Michael Batty

Maps and Decisions
Part III--Redistricting
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William C. Arlinghaus

Visualizing Rank and Size of Cities and Towns
Part II:  Greater London, 1901-2001
Sandra Arlinghaus and Michael Batty

Maps and Decisions
Part IV--Club Data
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William C. Arlinghaus

Visualizing a Map of Walter Christaller, Poland 1941
Part I:  Benchmarking the Map
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

3D Atlas of Ann Arbor:  The Google Earth Approach
Part I
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Visualizing a Map of Walter Christaller, Poland 1941
Part II:  Interpolation of the Benchmarked Map
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

3D Atlas of Ann Arbor:  The Google Earth Approach
Part II
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Banda Aceh:  A View on the Globe
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Zipf's Hyperboloid?
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Michael Batty

Divine Proportions:  Rational Trigonometry to Universal Geometry by Norman Wildberger
Book Reviewer, S. Arlinghaus

PseudoCoup:  A Psubtle Puzzle
William C. Arlinghaus

PseudoCoup:  A Psubtle Puzzle
William C. Arlinghaus

Volume XVI, Number 1
Spatial Synthesis.
The Evidence of Cartographic Example:  Hierarchy and Centrality
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Exploring the Relationships between Land-use System and Travel Behaviour Concepts:  Some First Findings
Veronique Van Acker and Frank Witlox

Kioskland:  A Strategy for Linking Hierarchical Levels of Virtual Reality Maps
S. Arlinghaus et al.

Using Asymmetry to Estimate Potential
Waldo Tobler

A Methodology for Historical Geography:  Internet Implementation
Ann Evans Larimore with Sandra Lach Arlinghaus and Robert Haug

Photo Essay: The Emerald Ash Borer
John D. Nystuen

Spatial Synthesis:  Investigations in Progress
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Beyond the Shadow
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William C. Arlinghaus

News:  Update on the 3D Atlas of Ann Arbor
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, Alyssa J. Domzal, Ui Sang Hwang, Kris J. Walters, Jr.

Volume XV, Number 1
Spatial Synthesis Sampler.
Geometric Visualization of Hexagonal Hierarchies:  Animation and Virtual Reality
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus and William Charles Arlinghaus
[A Pirellii INTERNETional Award Semi-Finalist]

Spatial Synthesis:  3D Atlas of Ann Arbor
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

One Optimization of an Earlier Model of Virtual Downtown Ann Arbor
Klaus-Peter Beier

Cross-discipline Analogy:  Information Impedance Matching
Peter Martin

Modelling Locational Decision Making of Firms Using Multidimensional Fuzzy Decision Tables:  An Illustration
Frank J. A. Witlox, Aloys W. J. Borgers, Harry J. P. Timmermans

Goode's 80th!
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

The View from the Top:  Visualizing Downtown Ann Arbor in Three Dimensions
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, Fred J. Beal, and Douglas S. Kelbaugh

Continental USA Travel Tracks
Gottfried Hogh

Visualizing Accessibility II:  Access to Food
Marc Schlossberg

Two Rivers Ridge:  Capturing Art
Sandra Arlinghaus and Braxton Blake

Energy Flow:  Spatial and Temporal Patterns
Peter A. Martin

Winter Windows:  Ice Largo
Alma S. Lach

Spatial Analysis of Subway Zones in Boston, Massachusetts
Seung-Hoon Han

A Golfer's Resource:  Huron Hills Golf Course, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Andrew Walton

Visualization of Geographic Information with VRML
Thana Chirapiwat

Volume XIV, Number 1
Animated Time Lines:  Coordination of Spatial and Temporal Information
Sandra Arlinghaus, Michael Batty, and John Nystuen

Lewis and Clark, 200 Years:  A Visual Tribute to an Exploration
The Gates of the Rocky Mountains
Sandra Arlinghaus, Robert Haug, Ann Larimore

Viewing the relative importance of some surface parameters associated with pre-monsoon thunderstorms through Ampliative Reasoning
Sutapa Chaudhuri and Surajit Chattopadhyay
Dependence of Production of Paddy on the Total Annual Rainfall:  A Different Approach
Surajit Chattopadhyay

On L1 Convergence of Modified Sine Sums
Kulwinder Kaur

Combating the Complexity in Spatial Data:  A Neuronal Approach
Surjit Chattopadhyay

Ann Arbor, Michigan:  Virtual Downtown Experiments
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Ann Arbor, Michigan:  Virtual Downtown Experiments, Part II
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Tornado Siren Location:  Ann Arbor, Michigan
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Ann Arbor, Michigan:  Virtual Down Experiments, Part III
Taejung Kwon, Adrien A. Lazzaro, Paul J. Oppenheim, Aaron Rosenblum

Volume XIII, Number 1
Animated Map Timeline, Syria
Sandra Arlinghaus, Salma Haidar, and Mark Wilson

Visual Accessibility with GIS
Marc Schlossberg

Classification Techniques in Complex Databases:  Assessment of Vagueness and Sparsity in a Network of World Cities
B. Derudder and F. Witlox

Cost Proxy Models in Rural Telephone Companies
Robert F. Austin

The Thunen Society, North American Division
John D. Nystuen

Predicting Pre-monsoon Thunderstorms--A Statistical View through Propositional Logic
Surajit Chattopadhyay

The Lights Are On, All Over the World
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Disaggregation and Targetingn of Universal Service Support
Robert F. Austin and Porter E. Childers

L1 Convergence of Cosine Series with Hyper Semi Convex Coefficients
Kulwinder Kaur, Babu Ram, and S. S. Bhatia

Spatial Synthesis:  A Research Program
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William C. Arlinghaus

Volume XII, Number 1
Volume XII, Number 2
Water Rustlers?
John D. Nystuen

Spherical Measures without Spherical Trigonometry
Waldo Tobler

The Neglected Relation
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William C. Arlinghaus

What's At Home?  Shelter for the Poor in Low Income Cities
John D. Nystuen

Maps and Decisions:  Allen's Creek Floodplain, Opportunity or Disaster?
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Base Maps, Buffers, and Bisectors
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Fast Food Nation:  The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, by Eric Schlosser
Kameshwari Pothukuchi, Book Reviewer

High Technology and Low-Income Communities:  Prospects for the Positive Use of Advanced Information Technology, Donald A. Schon, Bish Sanyal, William J. Mitchell
Richard R. Wallace, Book Reviewer

Volume XI, Number 1
Volume XI, Number 2
Set in Stone:  An Analemma in Northern Italy
John D. Nystuen

Fifty Years of Spatial Analysis:  A Symposium in Honor of William L. Garrison, 1950-2000.  Photo Essay.
John D. Nystuen

Personal Reflections on Solar Power
Richard Wallace

A Neighborhood Information System within Ann Arbor, Michigan
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Lloyd R. Phillips

Animaps, IV:  Of Time and Place
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Animaps, Again
Courtney Gober

The Cost of Living by Roy Arundhati
Richard Wallace, Book Reviewer

Animap Sequences
Nakia D. Baird

Volume X, Number 1
Volume X, Number 2
Metropolitan Mining:  Institutional and Scale Effects on the Salt Mines of Detroit
John D. Nystuen

Listening to Raindrops
Jeffrey A. Nystuen

Animaps III:   Color Straws, Color Voxels, and Color Ramps
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William C. Arlinghaus

A Map of Jackson, Mississippi
Sandra L. Arlinghaus

Statistical Tests for Mixed Linear Models, by Andre I. Khuri, Thomas Mathew, and Bimal K. Sinha.
Richard Wallace, Book Reviewer

The Rise of the Network Society, by Manuel Castells
Seema Desai Iyer, Book Reviewer

Volume IX, Number 1
Volume IX, Number 2
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, William D. Drake, and John D. Nystuen with data and other input from Audra Laug, Kris S. Oswalt, and Diana Sammataro

Animated Four Color Theorem:  Sample Map
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Spatial Analysis, the Wisconsin Idea and the UW-System.  The Use and Abuse of Dispersion Statistics.
Frank E. Barmore (reprinted, in part, from The Wisconsin Geographer (with permission)).

Animaps, II
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Revitalizing Maps or Images?
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Ruben De la Sierra

Rising Tide:  The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 and How it Changed America, by John M. Barry.
Daniel Albert, Book Reviewer

The Universe Below by William J. Broad
John D. Nystuen, Book Reviewer

Volume VIII, Number 1
Volume VIII, Number 2
Why Whales Don't Freeze or Kidney-Shaped Airports:  Spatial Analysis and Spatial Design
John D. Nystuen

The Photographic Record, SunSweep: A Visit on the Summer Solstice
John D. Nystuen

To the Memory of Clyde Tombaugh, 1906-1997
Frank Harary

Buffers and Duality
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, Frederick L. Goodman, Daniel A. Jacobs

A Graph Theoretic View of the Join-Count Statistic
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William C. Arlinghaus

Differences in Feature Representation in Digital Map Bases
John D. Nystuen and Andrea I. Frank

Volume VII, Number 1.
Volume VII, Number 2.
The Greening of Detroit, 1975-1992:  Physical Effects of Decline
John D. Nystuen, Rhonda Ryznar, Thomas Wagner

Algebraic Aspects of Ratios
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

U.S. Route 12 Buffer
Daniel Jacobs

Web Fractals:  An Overview
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Part II.  Elements of Spatial Planning.  Theory.  Merging Maps:  Node Labeling Strategies
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Volume VI, Number 1.
Volume VI, Number 2.
Motor Vehicle Transport  and Global Climate Change:  Policy Scenarios
Richard Wallace

Discrete Mathematics and Counting Derangements in Blind Wine Tastings
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, William C. Arlinghaus, John D. Nystuen

Elements of Spatial Planning:  Theory.  Part I.
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Volume V, Number 1.
Available in TeX
Volume V, Number 2.
Available in TeX
Getting Infrastructure Built.  Cleveland Infrastructure Team Shares Secrets of Success.
Virginia Ainslie and Jack Licate

Center Here; Center There; Center, Center Everywhere
Frank E. Barmore

Equal-Area Venn Diagrams of Two Circles:  Their Use with Real-World Data
Barton R. Burkhalter

Los Angeles, 1994--A Spatial Scientific Study.
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, William C. Arlinghaus, Frank Harary, John D. Nystuen

The Paris Metro:  Is its Graph Planar?
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, William C. Arlinghaus, Frank Harary

Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Imperfections in the Uniform Plane.  Reprint.
Michael F. Dacey

Volume IV, Number 1.
Available in TeX
Volume IV, Number 2.
Available in TeX
Electronic Journals:  Observations Based on Actual Trials, 1987-Present
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Richard H. Zander

Wilderness As Place
John D. Nystuen

The Earth Isn't Flat.  And It Isn't Round Either: 
Some Significant and Little Known Effects of the Earth's Ellipsoidal Shape
Frank E. Barmore

Micro-cell Hex-nets?
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Sum Graphs and Geographic Information
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, William C. Arlinghaus, Frank Harary

Villages in Transition:  Elevated Risk of Micronutrient Deficiency
William D. Drake, S. Pak, I. Tarwotjo, Muhilal, J. Gorstein, R. Tilden

Volume III, Number 1. Volume III, Number 2.
Computing Areas of Regions with Discretely Defined Boundaries
Harry L. Stern

The Quadratic World of Kinematic Waves
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, John D. Nystuen, Michael J. Woldenberg

What Are Mathematical Models and What Should They Be?  Reprint.
Frank Harary

Where Are We?  Comments on the Concept of Center of Population
Frank E. Barmore

The Pelt of the Earth:  An Essay on Reactive Diffusion
Sandra L. Arlinghaus and John D. Nystuen

  Volume II, Number 1.
Available in TeX
Volume II, Number 2.
Available in TeX
The Spatial Shadow:  Light and Dark--Whole and Part
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, David Barr, John D. Nystuen

Proof, Truth, and Confusion, Reprint,
The Nora and Edward Ryerson Lecture at The University of Chicago in 1982
Saunders Mac Lane

Digital maps and Data Bases:  Aesthetics versus Accuracy
Robert F. Austin

Volume I, Number 1.
Available in TeX
Available in TeX
Postulates of the Science of Space, Reprint
William Kingdon Clifford

Beyond the Fractal
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Groups, Graphs, and God
William C. Arlinghaus

A City of Strangers:  Spatial Aspects of Alienation in the Detroit Metropolitan Region
John D. Nystuen

Scale and Dimension:  Their Logical Harmony
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

Parallels Between Parallels
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

The Hedetniemi Matrix Sum:  A Real-world Application
Sandra L. Arlinghaus, William C. Arlinghaus, and John D. Nystuen

Fractal Geometry of Infinite Pixel Sequences:  "Super-definition" Resolution
Sandra Lach Arlinghaus

2.  Editorial Board, Advice to Authors, Mission Statement
3.  Awards




Solstice:  An Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics
Institute of Mathematical Geography (IMaGe).
All rights reserved worldwide, by IMaGe and by the authors.
Please contact an appropriate party concerning citation of this article:

Solstice was a Pirelli INTERNETional Award Semi-Finalist, 2001 (top 80 out of over 1000 entries worldwide)

One article in Solstice was a Pirelli INTERNETional Award Semi-Finalist, 2003 (Spatial Synthesis Sampler).

Solstice is listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals maintained by the University of Lund where it is maintained as a "searchable" journal.

Solstice is listed on the journals section of the website of the American Mathematical Society,
Solstice is listed in Geoscience e-Journals
IMaGe is listed on the website of the Numerical Cartography Lab of The Ohio State University:

Congratulations to all Solstice contributors.
Remembering those who are gone now but who contributed in various ways to Solstice or to IMaGe projects, directly or indirectly, during the first 25 years of IMaGe:

Allen K. Philbrick | Donald F. Lach | Frank Harary | William D. DrakeH. S. M. Coxeter | Saunders Mac Lane | Chauncy D. Harris | Norton S. Ginsburg | Sylvia L. Thrupp | Arthur L. Loeb | George Kish
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Ann Arbor, MI 48104