Wars of the Roses, 1455-1487:
and Interaction as Space/time Transformations
BATTLES OF THE
WARS OF THE ROSES OVERVIEW:
TIME AND SPACE
of Selected Events
on year links to follow annual timelines; click on other links to
follow actors and events.
pages above contain numerous links to important participants and to
references, timelines, and bibliographies.
In addition to the hundreds mounted
there, the following link contains a few extra references
not found elsewhere.
INTERACTIONS CAUSE CHANGE
The animated map below depicts 15 battles of the Wars of the
Roses. There is not clear consensus as to how many battles there
were and where, exactly they were. Thus, locations are
approximate in many cases. Download Google Earth (free) and then
download the file of rose placemarks; drive around across virtual
battlefields. The height of the placemarks represents time:
the taller the placemark the later the battle was fought. There
is a substantial amount of information associated with the Google Earth
file. The animated sequence of screenshots, below, is simply a
beginning to entice the reader to participate in a fully interactive
capture of Google Earth file showing placemarks according to battle
victory: white rose represents a Yorkist victory, red rose
represents a Lancastrian victory, and Tudor rose represents a Tudor
(Henry VII, House of Lancaster)
victory. The height of the rose placemark represents the
date: earlier is lower, later is higher.
of battles; follow the battle names along the left side as the rose
markers enter the scene. Temporal spacing between successive
animation frames reflects temporal spacing between battles: 1
year between battles is represented by 1 second between frames.
here to see a larger, high
to download the .kmz file for Google Earth--view rose placemarks
directly in Google Earth and drive around the virtual scene; read links
associated with the placemarks.
GENEALOGY OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
offer visual evidence of temporal pattern. When the line segments
adjacent rectangles are scaled according to time, additional
is transformed into a spatial format. Another interesting view of the
is as a dynamic object that represents the stability, or lack thereof,
in a system. Scramble the applet; does it settle down to a steady
The size of the bounding box helps to determine the steadiness of the
are many parallels to these ideas in human systems. Move the red
box. Move other
parts of the applet as you wish, to expose names or genealogical
structure. Notice the loop of descendants of Edward III;
John of Gaunt, through John Beaufort, leads to the House of Lancaster,
while Lionel, Duke of Clarence leads to the House of York. When
Elizabeth of York marries Lancastrian Henry VII (Tudor) their son,
Henry VIII, combines the Yorkist and Lancastrian claims to the throne,
closes the loop and structurally ends the dispute.
Screen capture of Java Applet appears below.
- Eagles, Robin. 2005. The Timeline History of England: A
Chronological Guide to Dates, People and Events. New
York: Barnes and Noble.
- Battlefields Trust. UK Battlefields Resource Centre.
Last accessed January 1, 2007.
- Luce, R. Duncan and Perry, Albert D. 1968. "A Method
of Matrix Analysis of Group Structure." Readings in Mathematical
Social Science, ed. Paul F. Lazarsfeld and Neil W. Henry, Cambridge,
- Shakespeare, William. Plays:
- Henry VI
- Richard III
- Richard II
- Henry IV, Part I
- Henry IV, Part 2
- Henry V
- Williams, Gareth. Finite Mathematics.
- Wars of the Roses: http://www.warsoftheroses.com/battles.cfm
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