Spatial Synthesis
Volume II, Book 2:
Making It Clear:  The Importance of Transparency

Sandra Lach Arlinghaus


The links in this section reflect the evolution of an approach to classical central place theory created by S. Arlinghaus in 1985 (Arlinghaus, S.  "Fractals Take A Central Place"  Geografiska Annaler, 67B, 1985, pp. 83-88, Journal of the Stockholm School of Economics; Arlinghaus S. and Arlinghaus, W.  "The Fractal Theory of Central Place Hierarchies:  A Diophantine Analysis of Fractal Generators for Arbitrary Loschian Numbers"  Geographical Analysis:  An International Journal of Theoretical Geography, Ohio State University Press, Vol. 21, No. 2, April, 1989, pp. 103-121) written about in these references and elsewhere

The image above illustrates a strategy for aligning an historical map with the actual landscape.  It also inserts bars as part of a hierarchy of the spatial distribution of cities and tributary areas in World War II Poland.

In eBooks:  Spatial Synthesis:  Centrality and Hierarchy. Volume I,  Book 1.  Sandra Lach Arlinghaus and William Charles Arlinghaus.  June 21, 2005.

In Solstice:  An Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics:


Software used in analysis:

Author affiliation:

Arlinghaus, Sandra Lach.  Adjunct Professor of Mathematical Geography and Population-Environment Dynamics, School of Natural Resources and Environment, The University of Michigan.  Executive Committee Member (Secretary) Community Systems Foundation,,

Published by:
Institute of Mathematical Geography
October, 2008.
Copyright by Sandra Arlinghaus, all rights reserved.